Open-access E-journal for 
International Scholars, Practitioners, and Students of Multicultural Education

ISSN: 1559-5005
Copyright © 1999-2006 by 
Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education

(FALL 2003: vol. 5, no. 2)

Globalization and Global Education

Chang Dunn & Occhi Johnston Miller & Endo

Klein Lund

Art Books



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About the Editors

Heewon Chang, Ph. D.
Copy Editor

Hwa Young Caruso,  Ed. D. &  John Caruso, Jr. , Ph. D.
Art Review Editors 

Assistant Editor

Eastern University
Education Department
1300 Eagle Road
St. Davids, PA,

Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education

Fall 2003 (Vol. 5, No. 2)

Theme: Globalization and Global Education

Overview | Articles | Instructional Ideas | Reviews of Resources


Globalization is a pronounced phenomenon in the 21st century.  As the political and economic influence of the developed countries over the world increases as part of globalization, the world becomes more interdependent both voluntarily and reluctantly.  The interconnectedness is facilitated by "newer" innovations of  telecommunication (e.g., internet and email), added to conventional ones (e.g., telephone, TV, video, and radio), which transmit information from one corner of the world to the other quicker and faster.  Transnational mobility has also increased due to easy and affordable access to air transportation.  Multinational corporations have intensified international collaboration as well as competition. Whether individuals become aware of it or not, the interconnectivity of the world is a fact of life in this century.   As a discipline that concerns itself with justice and equity regarding cultural diversity, multicultural education must rise to the challenge of globalization in helping students become aware of this phenomenon, develop less ethnocentric attitudes toward the world, become equipped with effective cross-cultural knowledge and skills, and simultaneously critique the shortcomings of this world-wide phenomenon.  This Fall issue intends to bring multicultural educational discussions beyond the domestic realm to the global context.  

This second issue of the year 2003 contains four articles, two instructional ideas, and reviews of printed and multimedia resources addressing the theme of globalization and global education (abstracts of the articles and lists of resources may be accessed by clicking the links below).  Three articles concerning the specific issue theme include works of Chang, Dunn and Occhi, and Jonhston.  Chang's article presents an analysis of college textbooks published for multicultural education courses, in which she examines how global issues and perspectives are infused in the discussion of multicultural education.  She summarizes and critiques various models of global inclusion that the textbooks adopt, and argues for the culturally rich and meaningful "global citizenship approach."   Dunn and Occhi's work and Johnston's work are similar in that they both promote a cultural understanding of Japan; yet, they adopt different approaches to accomplishing this goal.  Dunn and Occhi take advantage of an electronic communication tool, such as on-line chatting, through which  U. S. college students exchange questions and answers with Japanese counterparts.  This exchange results in reducing stereotypes and prejudice toward each other.  Johnston's work focuses on U. S. college students' learning about Japanese education through videos incorporated in their education course.  Using a pre and post-survey research method, he is able to demonstrate the positive effect of this instructional approach on U. S. students' increased cultural awareness toward self and others.  Miller and Endo's article, included in the Open Forum section, focuses on challenges that immigrant students face upon learning a new language and culture.  The authors not only list difficulties the immigrant students encounter, but also provide helpful suggestions for teachers to consider in helping them succeed in their cultural and lingual adjustment.  

Klein and Lund provide instructional ideas to be implemented at college and high school levels respectively.  Their ideas, however, can be easily adapted for different levels of instruction.  Klein uses world literature to help education students gain global cultural perspectives.  Her article includes several examples of world literature useful in this endeavor.  Lund promotes multicultural and antiracist activism to help students develop as active agents of social change.  As an experienced social activist teacher, he offers practical suggestions as to how to start such a curriculum. 

In the Art Reviews section, four installations by a Korean artist, Suk Nam Yun, are reviewed.   Five books selected for the Literature for Young Readers in the Book Reviews section are geared toward elementary teaching; out of seven professional books reviewed here,  two--Coaching Across Cultures and Mind Your Manners--will be particularly interesting to those involved in cross-cultural training for international business personnel.  The Multimedia Reviews section contains reviews of six websites and two videos.  Enjoy this free-access journal and let us know what you think of it!

Heewon Chang, Ph. D.
Editor-in-Chief, EMME



 Heewon Chang
Eastern University

ABSTRACT: By analyzing textbooks published for teacher education courses in the field of multicultural education, the author identifies four approaches that scholars have taken in dealing with global issues: (1) culture sampler approach, (2) cross-cultural competency approach, (3) international comparison approach, and (4) global citizenship approach. She critically examines the depth and breadth of each approach and argues for global citizenship education as part of multicultural education. [FULL TEXT]


Using Internet-Mediated Communication for Cross-Cultural Education

Cynthia Dickel Dunn
University of Northern Iowa
U. S. A.

Debra J. Occhi

Miyazaki International College

ABSTRACT: One of the challenges facing cross-cultural education is the tendency to overgeneralize cultural differences and stereotype members of other groups or societies.  This paper explores how Internet-mediated communication between college students in different countries  can foster a more nuanced understanding of variation both within and between societies.  Through a case study of students in the United States (Iowa) and Japan (Miyazaki), we demonstrate how electronic communication between these groups allowed students to  become more aware of the diversity of experience and opinions within each society, counter each other’s overgeneralizations and idealized images, and find common ground with someone in another society.  [FULL TEXT]  



 Scott Johnston
Carroll College
U. S. A.

ABSTRACT: There is a growing need for both students and teachers to be more globally aware. This awareness needs to begin with teachers in all content areas, not just in social studies. The author, a teacher educator, presents key educational ideas from both Japanese and western perspectives in the Introduction to Education course.   Results from pre and post surveys given to the students reveal how this approach benefited them and what they learned from the approach.  [FULL TEXT]  


Instructional Ideas


Ana Maria Klein
State University of New York, Fredonia
U. S. A.

ABSTRACT: This instructional idea recommends re-reading classics such as Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea, and Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. They provide a shared context for class discussion, in which prejudice, scapegoating, inequalities, and racial innuendoes are explored in great depth. Re-visiting literature opens up a boundless arena for multicultural education.  [FULL TEXT]  


Engaging Student Leaders in Social Responsibility

Darren E. Lund
University of Calgary

ABSTRACT: Students, teachers, and community members are encouraged to become active agents of social change in their school and community. Engaging students in effective multicultural and antiracist activism is essential to foster fairness and equity in schools and communities. Drawing from over 16 years of school-based activism and his recent research in the field, the author shares specific ideas and examples for initiating and maintaining collaborative action groups. [FULL TEXT]


Open Forum

Problems They Face and What Teachers Can Do to Help

 Paul Chamness Miller
State University of New York, Cortland
U. S. A.

Hidehiro Endo
Purdue University
U. S. A.

ABSTRACT: Globalization contributes to an influx of students of “limited English proficiency” (LEP).  This increase has challenged U.S. schools to provide appropriate language instruction for these students, but the students are often placed in mainstream classes before they are linguistically ready.  Many mainstream classroom teachers are not trained in ESL and often have difficulty meeting the needs of their students.  This paper, through the lens of narrative inquiry, reviews current research on LEP students and examines the origins of the difficulties that they endure.  Finally, the authors provide suggestions for teachers without ESL or language training to implement in creating a comfortable environment for these students. [FULL TEXT]  


Reviews of Resources


Suk Nam Yun, “Mother,” installation, 1996

Suk Nam Yun, “Genealogy,” installation, 1993

Suk Nam Yun, “A Lady of Refined Manners,” installation, 1993

Suk Nam Yun, “Pink Room,” installation, 1997




Coburn, J. R., & Lee, T. C., Sibely, A. (Illustrator) (1996). Jouanah: A Hmong Cinderella. Arcadia, CA: Shen's Books.

Hickox, Rebecca & Hillenbrand, Will (illustrator). (199). The Golden Sandal: A Middle Eastern Cinderella Story.  Holiday House. 

Leigh, Nila K. (1993). Learning to Swim in Swaziland. New York: Scholastic Inc. 

McMahon, Patricia (1993). Chi-Hoon: A Korean Girl. Honesdale, PA: Caroline House. 

Tran, Truong, Phong (illustrator). (2003). Going Home, Coming Home. San Francisco, CA: Children's Book Press. 


Brown, Susan C. & Kysilka, Marcella L. (2002). Applying Multicultural and Global Concepts in the Classroom and Beyond. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Hansen, Mette H. (1999). Lessons in Being Chinese; Minority Education and Ethnic Identity in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press . 

Mohammed, Javed. (2003).  Islam 101.  Milpitas, CA:Pyramid Connections.

Mole, John. (2003).  Mind Your Manners. London, UK: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 

Rosinski, Philippe. (2003). Coaching Across Cultures: New Tools for Leveraging National, Corporate, and Professional Differences. London, UK: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 

Stromquist, Nelly & Monkman, Karen (ed). (2000). Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Tanaka, Greg. (2003).  The Intercultural Campus: Transcending Culture and Power in American Higher Education.  New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.   




The American Forum for Global Education

Classroom Conferencing

Global Education Resources

Global Pen Pals

Multicultural Supersite

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization


Black, Stephanie (Director) (2003). Life and Debt. 86 minutes, color. Distributed by New Yorker Video.

Life, Regge (Director/Producer) (1999). After America, After Japan. 60 minutes, color. Distributed by Global Film Network.